The easiest way to understand muscle movements is by the motion you must make to target and work that particular muscle or muscle group. All weight lifting movements/motions are either called "PULL" or "PUSH" movements. "Pull" muscles contract as weight is pulled toward your body. "Push" muscles contact as weight is pushed away from the body.
It is always smart to work the "pull" muscles on the same day and the "push" muscles on the same day because some movements complement one another. For example: a bent over row will also use help from the bicep to perform the pull movement. And a bench press will use help from the shoulders and triceps for the push movement.
These are your "PUSH" muscles:
These are your "PULL" muscles:
An example of a 4 to 5 day workout plan that allows for adequate body part rest:
Day 1: Back and Biceps (pull and pull)
Day 2: Lower-Body, quad focus, calves (lower body)
Day 3: Rest
Day 4: Chest, Shoulders and Triceps (push, push and push)
Day 5: Lower-Body, Hamstring focus (lower body)
Day 6: Abs (or you can always do abs on another day and have this day for cardio/rest)
Day 7: Rest
Hope this helps!!